Computer-Aided TB Screening for HIV+ Population Using Chest X-Rays

Banner image collage showing 4 pictures: portable x-ray device, mobile x-ray truck, chest-xray, and map of Kenya

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world’s deadliest communicable diseases is widespread, particularly in resource challenged parts of the world. TB is a severe comorbidity in immunocompromised HIV+ and is correlated with poor control in developing nations. Rapid TB detection tests are needed in endemic resource-constrained regions for appropriate treatment protocols.

Since the lack of sufficient radiological services in the area suggests the utility of automation to perform the screening, our in-house research effort applying our expertise in image analysis and machine learning focuses on developing software to automatically screen for disease in digital Chest X-ray (CXR) images. Radiological analysis of CXR images is a routine component in diagnosing pulmonary TB.


R SivaramakrishnanK, Antani SK, Xue Z, Candemir S, Jaeger S, Thoma GR. Visualizing abnormalities in chest radiographs through salient network activations in Deep Learning. Proc. IEEE Life Sciences Conference (LSC), Sydney, Australia, 2017. pp. 71-74, DOI:10.1109/LSC.2017.8268146.
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Guan Y, Li M, Jaeger S, Lure F, Raptopoulos V, Lu P, Folio LR, Candemir S, Antani SK, Siegelman J, Li J, Wu T, Thoma GR, Qu S. Applying Artificial Intelligence and Radiomics for Computer Aided Diagnosis and Risk Assessment in Chest Radiographs. 2nd Conference on Machine Intelligence in Medical Imaging (CMIMI) of the Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine (SIIM), Poster, 2017.
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Lure F, Jaeger S, Antani SK. Automated Systems for microscopic and radiographic tuberculosis screening. Electronic Journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 5-9, February 2017. [In Chinese]
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Jaeger S, Candemir S, Antani SK, Wang Y, Lu P, Thoma GR. Two public chest X-ray datasets for computer-aided screening of pulmonary diseases. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2014 Dec;4(6):475-7. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2223-4292.2014.11.20.
Abstract | PDF | PMID: 25525580 | PMCID: PMC4256233

Antani SK. Automatic x-ray screening for tuberculosis. SPIE Newsroom. October 2015. DOI: 10.1117/2.1201509.006128
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Xue Z, Candemir S, Antani SK, Long LR, Jaeger S, Demner-Fushman D, Thoma GR. Foreign Object Detection in Chest X-rays. Proc IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM) 2015, International Workshop on Biomedical and Health Informatics, Bethesda, Maryland, Nov. 9-12, 2015, pp: 56-61.
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KC S, Antani SK, Thoma GR. Stitched Multipanel Biomedical Figure Separation. IEEE, 28th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), pp. 54-59, 2015.
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KC S, Vajda S, Antani SK, Thoma GR. Automatic Pulmonary Abnormality Screening using Thoracic Edge Map. IEEE, 28th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), pp. 360-361, 2015.
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KC S, Xue Z, Antani SK, Thoma GR. NLM at ImageCLEF 2015: Biomedical Multipanel Figure Separation. Editors: Cappellato, L., Ferro, N., Jones, G., and San Juan, E., CLEF 2015 Labs and Workshops, Notebook Papers. CEUR WorkshopProceedings (, ISSN 1613-0073, Vol-1391/.
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Karargyris A, Siegelman J, Tzortzis D, Jaeger S, Candemir S, Xue Z, KC S, Vajda S, Antani SK, Folio L, Thoma GR. Combination of texture and shape features to detect pulmonary abnormalities in digital chest X-rays. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2016 Jan;11(1):99-106. doi: 10.1007/s11548-015-1242-x. Epub 2015 Jun 20.
Abstract | PDF | PMID: 26092662

Xue Z, You D, Candemir S, Jaeger S, Antani SK, Long LR, Thoma GR. Chest X-ray Image View Classification The 28th IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems
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Antani SK. Automated Detection of Lung Diseases in Chest X-Rays April 2015 Technical Report to the LHNCBC Board of Scientific Counselors
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KC S, Candemir S, Jaeger S, Folio L, Karargyris A, Antani SK, Thoma GR. Automatically detecting rotation in chest radiographs using principal rib-orientation measure for quality control. Int. J. Patt. Recogn. Artif. Intell, Vol 29 No. 2. DOI: 10.1142/S021800141.5570013
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KC S, Candemir S, Jaeger S, Folio L, Karargyris A, Antani SK, Thoma GR. Rotation detection in chest radiographs based on generalized line histogram of rib-orientations. IEEE 27th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, New York, NY, USA, May 27-29, 2014: page 138-142.
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Jaeger S, Karargyris A, Candemir S, Siegelman J, Folio L, Antani S, Thoma G. Automatic screening for tuberculosis in chest radiographs: a survey. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2013 Apr;3(2):89-99. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2223-4292.2013.04.03.
Abstract | PDF | PMID: 23630656 | PMCID: PMC3636475

Candemir S, Jaeger S, Palaniappan K, Musco J, Singh RK, Xue Z, Karargyris A, Antani SK, Thoma GR, McDonald CJ. Lung segmentation in chest radiographs using anatomical atlases with nonrigid registration. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2014 Feb;33(2):577-90. doi: 10.1109/TMI.2013.2290491. Epub 2013 Nov 13.
Abstract | PDF | PMID: 24239990

Jaeger S, Karargyris A, Candemir S, Folio L, Siegelman J, Callaghan FM, Xue Z, Palaniappan K, Singh RK, Antani SK, Thoma GR, Wang Y, Lu P, McDonald CJ. Automatic tuberculosis screening using chest radiographs. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2014 Feb;33(2):233-45. doi: 10.1109/TMI.2013.2284099. Epub 2013 Oct 1.
Abstract | PDF | PMID: 24108713

Jaeger S, Karargyris A, Antani SK, Thoma GR. Detecting tuberculosis in radiographs using combined lung masks. 34th Int. Conf. of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC). San Diego, CA. August 2012:4978-4981. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347110.
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Candemir S, Jaeger S, Palaniappan K, Antani SK, Thoma GR. Graph Cut Based Automatic Lung Boundary Detection in Chest Radiographs. 1st Annual IEEE Healthcare Innovation Conference of the IEEE EMBS Houston, Texas USA, 7 – 9 November, 2012.
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Kamalakannan S, Gururajan A, Sari-Sarraf H, Long LR, Antani SK. Double-edge detection of radiographic lumbar vertebrae images using pressurized open DGVF snakes. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2010 Jun;57(6):1325-34. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2010.2040082. Epub 2010 Feb 17.
Abstract | PMID: 20172792

Karargyris A, Antani SK, Thoma GR. Segmenting anatomy in chest x-rays for tuberculosis screening. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:7779-82. doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6091917.
Abstract | URL: | PMID: 22256142

Xu X, Lee DJ, Antani SK, Long LR, Archiband JK. Using Relevance Feedback with Short-term Memory for Content-based Spine X-ray Image Retrieval. J Neurocomputing. June 2009;72(10-12):2259-69.

Jaeger S, Antani S, Thoma GR. Tuberculosis Screening of Chest Radiographs. 2 June 2011, SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1201105.003732i.
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